National Indian Country Clearinghouse on Sexual Assault

What is Sexual Assault?

The majority of perpetrators of sexual violence who have been convicted and incarcerated are eventually released.  Reincorporating sex offenders into American Indian/Alaska Native communities can be a complicated process, which necessitates several policy considerations.  First, the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act provides the bare minimum requirements that jurisdictions, including tribes that opted to implement SORNA on their own, must observe in monitoring and supervising sex offenders.  Thus, although jurisdictions must comply with SORNA’s requirements, they are free to build upon SORNA to achieve an optimum sex offender management strategy.  


Effective management of sex offenders is necessary for the overall health of American Indian/Alaska Native communities.  Statistics suggest that between 12% and 24% of sex offenders perpetrate another crime of sexual violence after they have been released from custody.  Even more startling, because many incidents of sexual violence go unreported, experts believe that these statistics underestimate the likelihood of a sex offender committing another crime of sexual violence.  Thus, it is clear, with nearly 1 in every 4 sex offenders likely to offend again, effective monitoring and management of these perpetrators is critical.

The first chance that many jurisdictions have at managing sex offenders occurs when they are paroled from prison or released from tribal or country jails under terms of probation.  Under these circumstances, jurisdictions have much more say in the conduct and behavior of the sex offender than they would otherwise.  For example, most people on parole or probation must get their housing approved by a supervisory authority.  Furthermore, the parole board or probation officer can prohibit a sex offender from living with children, consuming drugs or alcohol, having contact with minors, having contact with his victim, using the Internet, and traveling to another community.  Moreover, a parole officer or probation officer can require that the offender participate in sex-offender-specific rehabilitation programs, attend drug rehabilitation programs, attend alcohol rehabilitation programs, or check in with the officer on a regular basis.  Any violation of the set terms of the offender’s release can result in his immediate arrest.

A jurisdiction’s ability to keep tabs on sex offenders is not limited to the period of time when the offender is on parole or probation. One very effective strategy for managing sex offenders is sex offender registration.  Sex offender registration enables the government to track and monitor sex offenders through the registration process.  SORNA attempts to create uniform guidelines for which types of sex offenders must maintain registration and for how long they must remain registered.  Under SORNA, sex offenders must register and keep their registration current in each jurisdiction in which they reside, work, or go to school.  Sex offenders must also make periodic in-person appearances to verify and update their registration information. All registered sex offenders must renew their registration within three days of moving, attending a new school, or getting a new job.   Furthermore, every SORNA-compliant jurisdiction must enact criminal penalties for failing to maintain proper registration in a sex offender database.  Thus, if the sex offender fails to register, it is a crime under tribal, state, and federal law, and he will go to jail.

Community notification laws are another tool used to monitor sex offenders.  Community notification laws can vary significantly between jurisdictions.  Jurisdictions can choose to provide notification about the sex offenders either actively or passively.  For example, listing the sex offender’s pertinent information on a website or similar online database is an example of passive community notification.  On the other hand, if the jurisdiction requires that law enforcement officers hang posters in the sex offender’s neighborhood or go door to door verbally notifying neighbors about the presence sex offender, this is an example of active notification requirements.   There can also be variation between the people who must be notified of the sex offender’s presence in jurisdictions that have adopted active notice requirements.  For example, if there is a low risk the sex offender will commit another crime of sexual violence, the police may only need to notify people who are especially vulnerable to being preyed upon by sex offenders (i.e., daycares, schools, playgroups, and children’s clubs).  If there is a high risk of the sex offender committing another crime of sexual violence, law enforcement may be required to hold a community meeting or publish notification about the offender’s presence in local media.

Finally, many jurisdictions have adopted residency restrictions for sex offenders.  These laws identify areas where children are typically found as (i.e., parks, elementary schools, libraries, playgrounds, and daycares) as “child safety areas.”  Sex offenders are thereby prohibited from living within a pre-specified zone, usually between 500 and 2,000 feet, of the “child safety area.”  If the sex offender is caught living within the zone surrounding the child safety area, he can be arrested and charged.



Other Resources - 25


Full Publication List


Featured Publications


A Desktop Guide for Tribal Probation Personnel


Guide for Tribal Probation Personnel













This guide, funded by a grant from the Bureau of Justice Assistance, provides tribal probation personnel with information on how the screening and assessment process can facilitate and promote offender accountability and long-term behavior change.



Public Hearing on Victim Issues in Probation and Parole Recommendation Report


Victim Issues in Probation


The report, funded and distributed by the Office for Victims of Crime, summarizes comments from the panel of crime victims and survivors and provides 10 recommendations for improving services to victims and survivors throughout the community corrections process.



Repaying Debts - Reports Summary


Repaying Debts


This publication, authored by the Council on State governments and funded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance, discusses how policymakers can increase accountability among perpetrators, improve rates of child support collection and victim restitution, and make people's transition from prisons and jails to the community safe and successful.



Sex Offender Management Policy in the States


Policy in the States


This document, developed by the Council of State Governments, provides an overview of sex offenders and a detailed review of the provisions of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. It also discusses issues related to compliance with the Act that jurisdictions are currently addressing and notable legal challenges to it. The resource also reviews what is known about the effectiveness of registration laws and residency restrictions for sex offenders, and provides a state-by-state review of sex offender-related laws.


National Indian Country Clearinghouse on Sexual Assault, a project by the Southwest Center for Law and Policy © 2013

This project was supported by  Grant No. 2011-TA-AX-K045 awarded by the Office on Violence Against Women. Points of view in this document are those of the author and do not necessary represent the official position of the U.S. Department of Justice. All rights reserved. | Privacy policy